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Sujit Choudhry: Speaker and Renowned Lecturer, Working Internationally Across Cultures

The Center for Constitutional Transitions is one of the most reputable organizations that shares knowledge and support for constitutional construction. Director Sujit Choudhry is a notable authority figure on constitutional law and politics. He has traveled to 30 countries to speak about related topics, and has served as a constitutional adviser in countries such as Libya, Tunisia, Ukraine, Egypt, and Nepal. With a work background that spans more than two decades, Choudhry has been exposed to a broad range of issues, such as political violence, ceasefires, and public discussion facilitation. His experience took him to meetings with key politicians, government organizations, technology companies, and many other entities. From drafting reports to developing engagement strategies, Choudhry's background includes nearly every facet of constitution building. He has a unique ability to apply his knowledge to multiple countries, cultures, and governments with insightful suggestions.

Sujit Choudhry was born in Delhi, India, and grew up in Toronto, Canada. His parents encouraged him to nurture his intellectual abilities by keeping the radio on CBC and having him read several newspapers each day during his childhood. His parents were both professors and inspired their children to follow in their footsteps. His father was an economics professor at the University of Toronto and his mother taught nursing classes. After Choudhry's brother grew up and finished college, he became a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Although Choudhry started as a pre-med student at McGill University, he developed an interest in law after he spent a summer interning at a bioethics center. He later attended Oxford University and earned a bachelor's degree in law in 1994. Mr. Choudhry earned another law degree from the University of Toronto in 1996, and finished his graduate degree in law at Harvard Law School in 1998. One year later, he began working as a professor at the University of Toronto. He gained tenure there in 2004 and was a top-rated professor. His students often left class feeling inspired and excited about constitutional law.

Knowledge Spanning Multiple Culture

Since Choudhry has knowledge about constitutional law and related political events in different countries, he often writes insightful opinion pieces. He has weighed in on several important topics across the globe, from the potential Catalan secession to Canadian constitutional issues.

Choudhry on Catalonia

The topic of secession in Catalonia was a hot-button issue last year. With the collaborative effort of several other constitutional law scholars, Choudhry wrote an open letter to the Spanish and Catalan governments about Catalonia's crisis. In it, he encouraged the two governments to find common ground and start a conversation. The experts hoped that the governments would find ways to act in good faith and have civilized discussions about important constitutional topics. They implored Catalonia's president to show his commitment to the democratic process. According to Choudhry and his colleagues, Catalonia's president could demonstrate such a commitment by holding a referendum on secession. If the referendum reflected the desire of the people to secede, the experts encouraged the president to implement its results under the Spanish constitution. Since many Catalan people supported secession, the legal experts also asked Prime Minister Rajoy to consider the desires of the Catalan people. Also, they encouraged him not to take actions to suppress the people’s ability to peacefully voice and demonstrate their opinions.

Choudhry and his colleagues said that in holding the referendum, it was also necessary to help the people realize the difficulties of a secession and its impact on Spain's constitutional order. They encouraged both governments to agree on a constitutional settlement, and said that the settlement should recognize the rights of both sides. In the letter, they also reminded the two governments that a peaceful agreement would benefit them both and would help lead to a resolution to the larger dispute. As Choudhry pointed out, the European Union's foundation would be undermined without a peaceful agreement. At the beginning of October in 2017, Spain took negative actions. It used forceful measures to prevent Catalonia from hosting its referendum, which heightened tensions even more. As the experts said, similar situations in the past had worse outcomes. However, the Catalan declaration of independence was postponed, which the experts said was a good move by Puigdemont. Much of the confusion arose from the mixed opinions of the Catalan people. While many called for secession and independence, a considerable number expressed doubts about the success of Catalonia's future after a secession.

Choudhry and his colleagues said that Spain's government did everything that it could to prevent Catalonia's voters from showing up to vote. Although it was unclear what the majority of the Catalan people wanted without a strong voter turnout, the experts asserted that the people should work together toward a new solution. They said that the government should determine what the solution would be, and ensure the implementation of accurate, fair, and democratic policies. According to the letter, Prime Minister Rajoy did not show adequate concern for the Catalan people and their wishes. This was evident when he attempted to repress the referendum. Choudhry and the others let him know that his behavior was unacceptable in relation to international law. The letter said that if he continued his practices of arresting and prosecuting people who fought for their independence, he would be guilty of human rights violations. Choudhry and his colleagues encouraged Rajoy to accept the outcome of the referendum if the Catalan people wanted independence from Spain.

Choudhry Intervenes in Sri Lanka and Nepal

Another of Choudhry's international efforts took place in Sri Lanka. In 2003, he and several other constitutional experts traveled there to provide federalist solutions to the country's ongoing conflict between ethnic groups. Choudhry demonstrated that he was not afraid to face danger to help positive changes happen. He and his team drove through dangerous villages that had been torched, and they were stopped at many checkpoints by guards with machine guns. This was not the only time that Choudhry and other passionate constitutional law experts put their lives in danger to help benefit foreign societies. They also performed similar actions in 2007, and again in 2010 in Nepal to facilitate constitutional negotiations.

Stance on the Future of Democracy

In a compelling new book chapter, Choudhry shares his insights about political events in North America and how they might impact the future of democracy. The chapter will be part of the new anthology Constitutional Democracies in Crisis? In the chapter, Choudhry dissects a tweet from Eric Holder that he published in 2017. The tweet was about the potential removal of Bob Mueller or the special office. Choudhry says that such an action should result in mass peaceful protests across the nation. He points out that Holder's tweet included important concepts of a boundary for American democracy and that the decisions and reactions of the American people would determine whether the line would be crossed or respected.

Choudhry goes on to explain that the tweet reflected the idea of constitutional self-enforcement, which was a focal point. Since constitutions are important for all governments and citizens, they must outline appropriate behavior for people of power in the government. To do this, Choudhry says that focal points should be established. In his chapter, Choudhry also covers presidential term limits. He says that an autocrat would try to obliterate the term limit to stay in office longer, which could hurt the American people. Tampering with term limits is a dangerous action that threatens democracy. According to him, a person who stays in office longer than two terms could delay new elections. Although Choudhry says that he is unsure if this would happen, he points out that it would surely bring more people into the streets to protest if it did.

To elaborate on his stance about Holder's tweet, Choudhry says that the red line that he referred to could also be considered a democratic failure. In addition to the removal of term limits, he says that another dangerous action would be power seizure. An example would be a military coup. Such coups have happened in other countries and caused serious destruction. Electoral fraud from incumbents is another issue that Choudhry mentions. He also writes about concerns of the mainstream media and fake news outlets. As he points out, several popular news sources are reporting in a way that makes the country look like its constitutional democracy is eroding. He says that this threat started after the Cold War and evolved. Choudhry writes about the 2015 Polish elections and how the government worked hard to undermine the constitutional democracy's framework to remove any obstacles in its way. It wanted to ensure that it had full power in all future election cycles. He provides extensive details about the event and explains their relevance to current American democracy issues.

Choudhry explains how new rules about judicial appointments, voting, constitution panels, and other issues would be affected by the presence of an interim president on the Polish Constitutional Tribunal. To provide real-world examples, he highlights how those issues affected Poland during its previous election cycle. One important aspect that he points out is how the seizure of the constitutional tribunal happened over a period of about one year with varying levels of intensity in attacks during that time. Choudhry writes about supporting events such as the circumvention of the tribunal's vice president when the interim president took office. However, those were all steps in a process that led to a complete overhaul of the country's system, which was a formidable threat to constitutional democracy.

As he continues the chapter, Choudhry writes about democratic backsliding, which is a term that Nancy Bermeo first mentioned. Democratic backsliding happens when a legally elected president or government uses legal powers to manipulate institutions or rules to remain in power. The concept applies to the design of the election system in the United States along with its rules about term limits, independent institutions, and both political and civil liberties. To provide an example, Choudhry writes about the fall of Weimar, Germany. In that example, he shows how the shift from a coup to a democratic backslide happened because of international changes in democracy. When such changes led to cover-ups of undemocratic regimes in some places, he says that democracy degradation took place. As he continues the chapter, Choudhry also writes about countries such as South Africa, Germany, and others to illustrate important points.

Research

Choudhry has conducted extensive research on a variety of comparative constitutional law issues and related political issues. For example, some of his research was about using constitutional design as a way to manage transitions from violence and conflict to peaceful establishment of democracy. Some of his other subjects of research include:

  • federalism, secession, and decentralization.

  • constitutional design in societies with ethnic division.

  • constitutional courts and transitional justice.

  • semi-presidentialism.

  • bills of rights.

  • minority and group rights.

  • official language policy.

  • constitutional design with a transition from authoritarianism.

  • constitution building methods.

  • comparative constitutional law methodology question development.

  • security sector oversight.

Publications and Lectures

Many of Sujit Choudhry's publications and research papers are about Canadian constitutional law. He has more than 100 articles, reports, book chapters, and working papers under his name. Choudhry edited "Constitutional Design for Divided Societies: Integration or Accommodation?" and "The Migration of Constitutional Ideas." He also edited "Constitution Making" and "The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution."

As a respected authority figure on comparative constitutional law publications, Choudhry is on the executive committee of the International Society of Public Law. He is also on the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Constitutional Law, and a member of the International Advisory Council of the Institute for Integrated Transitions. He holds editorial positions with the Constitutional Court Review and Cambridge Studies in Constitutional Law. Additionally, he holds an honorary membership with the Indian Constitutional Law Review's advisory council.

Choudhry has spoken at many distinguished events. He inspired people in the classroom in the past, and he inspires many other legal experts today with his passion and insights. In addition to serving as its director, Choudhry is the founder of the Center for Constitutional Transitions. The organization builds strong teams of leaders who work on global projects and complete thematic research projects for better solutions. The entity works with other organizations, NGOs, and educational facilities to develop new ideas. Currently, Choudhry is also the co-leader of several collaborative global research projects. His new areas of research include:

  • security sector reform and constitutional transitions in emerging democracies.

  • dealing with territorial cleavages in constitutional transitions.

  • protecting democratic consolidation from partisan abuse and backsliding.

He is completing these research projects with the cooperation of the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. When the research is finished, it will provide several policy outputs. Choudhry is also a respected member of the United Nations Mediation Roster, which is a distinguished and coveted role for any legal expert. Additionally, he served as a World Bank Institute consultant in the past. Although he has a long list of professional accomplishments, Choudhry is also a devoted family man. He has a wife, daughter, and son. He enjoys his time with his family and is usually with them when he is not busy attending faculty meetings, lecturing, writing, or performing research. A typical week for Choudhry includes each of those activities.

As he has successfully done in the past with the help of other legal experts, Sujit Choudhry is now looking forward to facilitating more constitutional development projects in ethnically divided societies. He enjoys bringing legal professionals, scholars, and political scientists together to develop new ideas and share knowledge. His passion brought forth one of the most important important pieces in his field called "Constitutional Design for Divided Societies: Integration or Accommodation?" His efforts in bringing this piece to fruition made him even more well-known as a constitutional law scholar.


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4 Ways to Become a Better Entrepreneur

In life, there is always room for improvement, especially when you decide to become an entrepreneur. There is so much to learn in the world of business, so it’s about being ready and open to learning. You may be an entrepreneur that’s been in business for a while, or perhaps you’re just getting started and looking for ways to develop yourself. Whatever the case, if you’re looking for ways to grow, then you should know that there are several opportunities out there for you to do so. Below you’re going to find four specific ways that you can become a better entrepreneur.

1 Learn From Your Mistakes

It is unlikely that on the history of planet earth, there is an entrepreneur that exists who hasn’t made mistakes. Unfortunately, to some extent, failure is part of the package when you decide to start a business. However, failure isn’t the ultimate end, but instead, it provides an opportunity to reflect and grow. Learning from your mistakes means admitting your imperfections, retracing your steps, determining why the error happened and moving on.

2 Go back to Higher Education

One of the best places to gain more knowledge in a specific field is in higher education. Although this isn’t the only way to do so, it gives you a more formal and structured way of learning which works for many. However, people are often afraid of going into higher education because of the cost implications, but you should know that there are affordable loans out there. You can find some of the best private student loans online with relatively fair interest rates. There are several courses you could decide to take such as the popular business administration, finance, marketing, or even economics. Think about what area you’d like to acquire more knowledge and how it will make you a better entrepreneur.

3 Get a Mentor

If you don’t already have one, getting a business mentor can prove to be an excellent way to become a better entrepreneur. If you’re able to get a good mentor, they can play a vital role in helping you grow and showing you the ropes in the business world. However, you should know that a mentor is something you have to go out and look for as they likely won’t come and find you. When you’re looking for a mentor, one of the best places to look are LinkedIn and Twitter as they’re usually good at connecting professionals. Do your research and look for a business professional in your industry that you respect, admire and feel you could learn from and then reach out. Also, as with any relationship, talk about what you can give and not just what you want to take.

4 Be Passionate

Although it can be argued that passion isn’t a prerequisite for running a successful business, when you look at some of the most successful ones out there, it’s an attribute they often have. For this reason, always reconnect with yourself and make sure you’re passionate about your business mission and what you stand for as a brand. Doing so should help you give it everything you’ve got and make a memorable impact.

To become a better entrepreneur, you have to be ready to do things outside of your comfort zone. Starting a business on its own is probably a significant challenge for you as you can’t predict what direction a company will go in. Whatever the case, by being committed to continuous growth, you should find you become a better entrepreneur as the days pass.


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Online Passive Income Investment Business Ideas and Opportunities

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Most of us constantly strive to earn more. The drive for greater income growth can either come from the yearning to spend more, the need for more income inflow, or even merely the desire for more significant savings and security. Websites like journalreview.org cost complaints show finance issues that are universal among us. It is an attractive idea to have opportunities for financial growth—especially without having to do much. Making money as we sit in school, at home, or in full-time jobs is possible with online passive income.

There's one crucial thing to remember before you get too excited. You must have enough savings to start. Know how to structure your passive income opportunity. If you don't, then focus first on building enough savings for you to have a starting point. Make savings your top priority if you wish to focus on growing your passive income opportunity, and keep this goal in mind.

Here are some of the most basic and common online passive income investment ideas and opportunities:

E-book Sales

If you're the type who loves to write, to create, or to document ideas that you can turn into writing, then this is a great opportunity. E-books are becoming very popular these days because of the convenience that comes along with it. You can read it at any time and any place in your device. The increasing demand in e-book sales have also come from the cheaper price of each book compared to physical books.

If writing is not your niche, then you can invest in someone who has the skill and the desire to come up with a book but may be in need of investors to get his work published. Alternatively, too, you can be the one promoting these e-books in your blog posts, where you receive payment in exchange.

Blogging – and Vlogging or Affiliate Marketing

Put those creative juices flowing to good use! With old-school blogging, you are given your domain name with a very minimal monthly maintenance cost.  Most of your income will come from the advertisements that are posted on the side bar of your domain. Payment can be given per click or per view of these ads, so the more traffic your blog receives, the greater the income for you. To increase your page traffic, you can set up your page to enable e-mail subscriptions or notifications for when you come up with a new post.

Aside from blogging, Vlogging or video logging through YouTube or other streaming services have become popular. You can start by talking about anything that interests you, and when your subscribers and views gradually increase, you can slowly become a social media influencer. This can be done in conjunction with affiliate marketing by promoting products that are sent to you. Take note that you do not sell these products; you are simply creating awareness about these products – by introducing them to your viewers. Make sure that your content stays relevant so you will continue to generate traffic into your channel.

Create APPS for Smartphones & Gadgets / Earn Royalty

This is perfect for the more tech-savvy ones. If creating digital games and applications is a hobby, then you can turn it into a profit-generating one. Take Mark Zuckerberg for example, he now sits and watches his Facebook empire grow. For each time that your game or application is being downloaded, you automatically earn your royalty.

Start an Online Store

Dropshipping is a great start to an online store. You only can learn through online courses. It is pretty simple to begin with. After opening your store through sites like Shopify, you can partner with online manufacturers who will do the processing for you, and you directly receive the difference, which is your profit. You do not even have to carry physical inventory of these products at all, as you get these from a third-party manufacturer.

Alternatively, you can start by posting products and items on Ebay or Amazon, and earn each time someone orders, while Amazon does all the shipping and processing as well.

Sell Photos Online

Websites like iStockPhoto and Shutterstock allows you to upload your licensed photos to their page, and every time someone buys your picture, you earn royalty fees. There has recently been an increasing demand for stock photos as oftentimes, blog writers, travel agencies or other businesses do not have the time and the availability of photos to supplement their website. More often than not they purchase stock photos in bulk from photo-selling sites. This is quite effortless on your part, as you are exercising a hobby while earning from it as well. What's even better is that you get to share your beautiful images with the world!


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4 Careers to Pursue for Financial Stability

As we grow older, our outlook on finances becomes more and more realistic. We realize that a lavish lifestyle of endless riches isn’t easy to attain, and that financial stability is a more desirable and realistic goal. Once we graduate and achieve financial independence, we can work on moving up and reaching the level that we dreamed of when we were younger.

For many of us, figuring out which subject will open up doors for the right career path in the future is a daunting task. The job market is always changing, and once worthwhile trades are often replaced by more modern alternatives. Finding an ideal work-life balance is key, and doing so involves making the right moves from the beginning.

Healthcare Administration

Careers in the healthcare industry often require high-level qualifications and years of experience. While not the most basic start, healthcare administration is less demanding but nonetheless highly lucrative. Baby boomers are now reaching retirement age and exiting the industry, opening up a significant amount of opportunities in the field.

If you’re yet to obtain your higher education, finding the best place to get started with your studies is important.

This will help you obtain all the qualifications and knowledge you need, allowing you to get the best entry level position. MHA programs in Boston offer flexible, affordable and well-renowned courses that will boost your CV and take you in the right direction from the beginning.

Software Development

Software development being a lucrative career should come as a no-brainer at this point. However, it’s still worth mentioning. Even though many graduates have already entered this line of work, there are still countless opportunities opening up every day as more and more businesses expand their online presence.

Even if a computer science degree is currently out of reach, there is much to learn through online courses and real-world certifications. Aim to obtain as many qualifications as possible so that you can skip the entry level gigs and head straight to higher paying opportunities where the bulk of the money lies.

Social Services

Not many people consider a career in social services, which for you, is only a good thing. Many high-paying vacancies pop up on a daily basis and aren’t as demanding as other careers in the same salary range. Social services extend to fields such as psychology, teaching and nursing, so there are study opportunities for everyone.

Accountant

While being one of the longest standing career paths in the list, accounting is still highly lucrative. Every business needs an accountant, which means vacancies are plentiful and often less demanding qualifications-wise.

Work is consistent, dependable and flexible in this field. Specific positions such as financial reporting, bookkeeping and auditing fall under the same requirements, allowing you to more easily find a suitable position for yourself.

The great part about these career paths is that they all offer the opportunity to move up and increase your salary as you gain experience. With a few years of hard work, you can reach the level of financial stability you desire, allowing you to live a successful, stress-free lifestyle.


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The Most Common Mistakes Made By Investors

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Many people like the idea of investing and playing the stock market because it can be a great way to build wealth, but often people find that it does not play out as they wish, and it can even lead to financial difficulties. This is because people often make the same mistakes when they start to invest and because they do not know what they are doing. Therefore, it is important to be aware of what these common mistakes are and how you can avoid them. Even experienced investors can make these mistakes so these can help whether you are new to investing or an experienced investor looking to improve.

Lack Of Knowledge

The main mistake that people make when it comes to investing is a lack of understanding. First, you need to understand investment and how the stock market works in order to make intelligent decisions. You also need to carry out research before making any kind of investment to determine whether or not it is a good decision. You should be able to easily explain what the business is, how they make money and why they have the potential to succeed.

Using Emotion

It might be tempting to invest in a company that you like or because they were recommended by someone that you like, but investing with emotion is asking for trouble. You need to be as detached as possible when it comes to investing, and you will often find that it is the unglamorous stocks which are the best options.

Following The Herd

Following on from this, you should avoid following the crowd as this combines both a lack of knowledge and using emotion. Additionally, by the time that a crowd has followed it is often too late as you need to identify these opportunities early on in order to succeed. If you are recommended an investment because it has performed well previously, then there is no guarantee that this will be replicated. Instead of following the herd, you should do your own research and take advice from reputable and established resources.

Not Using Experts

There is a tremendous amount of help and support available, yet many people ignore this and go it alone. Experts like America’s number one trader Tom Gentile can help with guidance and various tools to help you to capture maximum gains and achieve your financial goals. Read more about the Tom Gentile Money Calendar to find out more about how this can help you to succeed with your investments.

Holding On To A Loser

Knowing when to quit is an important skill, and it can take some time for this to develop. People will often hold on to a loser in the hope that it will rebound but this very rarely happens, and it can take a long time for this to occur. It is best to simply cut your losses and move on, although it is also important to have patience.

Impatience

Investing is about building wealth over a long period of time, so you need to be patient. In a day and age where instant gratification is a common part of life, this can be challenging, but there is no way to make a quick buck with investing. Let your investments grow over time and avoid making any rash decisions. It can be helpful to set yourself long-term plans so that you always have something to work towards and an end goal in sight.

Not Harvesting Winners

Although you need to practice patience, it is equally important that you know when to harvest your winnings. No investment will continue to rise, so you need to harvest your winners when you have got significant gains from the investment.

Relying On Investments

You should never use money that you cannot afford to lose. While there is an element of predictability if you are willing to do the research and make intelligent decisions, there will always be risk attached to investing so you should not rely on your investments to earn money and you should never invest with money which you need.

Putting All Your Eggs In One Basket

Seeing as there is always an element of risk involved, you should avoid putting all of your eggs in one basket in terms of making large singular investments. You often hear people say that you should diversify your portfolio, and this is good advice because it helps you to spread risk - even if one or a few of your investments are not performing as expected, you should still have a few that are so that you are not losing money.

Too Conservative/Overly Aggressive

It is a fine line trying to balance risk and reward when it comes to investing. If you are too conservative, you will never achieve your financial goals, but taking too many risks will come back to haunt you. The key to finding the right balance is to understand your risk tolerance and to carry out adequate research before making any investments. Avoid pushing your risk tolerance as this will lead to stress and anxiety which will result in emotional decisions.

Forgetting Taxes, Expenses & Fees

You need to remember that there will be tax implications, expenses, and fees relating to any financial movements that you make. This means that you need to factor these into your budget and consider them when weighing up the benefits of making a transaction. You should not avoid the sale of an investment due to taxes and fees, but, equally, you should never ignore the tax implications either.

These are the main mistakes that people make when it comes to investing. These mistakes can be costly, and even an experienced investor may make one from time to time, so it is important that you know how to avoid them. Investing can be an excellent way to build wealth over a long period of time, but you need to make sure that you always do your research and avoid using money that you need or taking too many risks.

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